經濟學作業幫助

  Due to the differences of shopping goods, convenience goods and specialty goods, the direct mail, vending machine, personnel selling, telephone marketing, facsimile marketing, and Internet marketing are also different from each other in the facets of goods information demands, machine-purchaser interaction, seller-purchaser interaction and offering-purchasing interaction. In addition, the problems of monetary policy and instruments are explained. The third reason to study macroeconomics is that it will give you a better understanding of the potential and limits of economic policies.   The third part will include topics concerning product planning, channels of distribution, pricing and promotion. The course also discusses marketing, human resources, leadership, and management and how they apply to hospitality management.   While theory is covered, actual studies are emphasized. This course has been designed to introduce the legal theory and practices of labor laws, in particular for the protection of individual laborers. Scribd is the world’s largest social reading and publishing site. In addition, considering influence of native culture, this course will also introduce characteristics of psychology and behaviors of Chinese, and the possible influences on their organizational behaviors.

We will also tap the phenomena of loyalty, re-purchase, complaints, and satisfactions in conventional marketing settings and e-commerce worlds.   This course is based on the various behavioral concepts and theories that have been found useful for understanding, explaining, and predicting the consumer behaviors. Besides, to learning the best practice of the experienced practitioners in organizational change, we will study several cases that CEOs had guided their companies through major turnarounds and transformations. First, this course tries to extend the scope of formal marketing management course which was taught in the second year of the student two years ago.   Topics include – theory of finance, working capital management, securities analysis, portfolio management, empirical research in finance, and identifying and solving financial problems through the use of case studies. The essence of business is the transaction between two parties. Conversation : To teach students the English they will need to communicate effectively in a professional environment. 通則, 2 、所有權, 3 、地上權, 4 、永佃權, 5 、地役權, 6 、抵押權, 7 、質權, 8 、典權, 9 、留置權, 10 、占有。 ( 四 ) 親屬。 ( 五 ) 繼承。.

  The second objective is to explain the way the plan is created.   It will be examined mainly from the basic functions of human resource management, which include trends in human resource management, job analysis, human resource planning, employment, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation, labor relations, and international human resource management. How can new products and services be successfully introduced in the marketplace. (3) to provide the ability to solve brand management issue.   Upon the basis of Fundamental Marketing or Marketing Management, Direct Marketing is further to tap how to shorten the distance between offering and purchasing. Conversation : To teach students the English they will need to communicate effectively in a professional environment. The course will also cover the development of the Internet and its derivative issues as well as its impact on the protection and exercise of intellectual property rights.   Specifically, the expenditure of materials usually makes up 60-80% of manufacturing cost, then the procurement performance will significantly affect the operating results.

The methods of carrying out business activities of  banking has undergone rapid change in recent years as a result of volatile economic conditions and revised banking regulations. We will be spending a substantial amount of time on the discussion of a few business case studies. Warehousing and transportation are two important factors affecting the performance of a distribution channel.   The course will make students: (1) Familiar with the process of strategy formulation and implementation (2) Able to conduct situational analysis and scenario planning. However, under the constraints of limited resources and considerations of sustainable development, it is much more critical to the overall national competitiveness to upgrade efficiency and effectiveness of the existed transport systems by means of advanced theory, methods, and technologies. Among these is the corporate culture which, because of its subtle nature, is frequently mismanaged.   Contents of the course include descriptive statistics, probability and probability distributions, sampling and sampling distributions, estimation, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, regression and correlation analysis. This course will cover the concept and major features in hardware(CPU, memory, I/O devices) and software(system software and application software);also learn how to operate window98, Word on the PC system, and how to use browser in the Internet/WWW. The electronic commerce here refers to conducting the business via modern communication technologies, which can be classified into two 类别 of business-to-business and business-to-consumer.

http://ibook.ltcvs.ilc.edu.tw/books/a0168/1/ 羅東高商六十週年 ...

  The course will make students: (1) Familiar with the process of strategy formulation and implementation (2) Able to conduct situational analysis and scenario planning. 購併指的是兩種不同的活動,一是收購(acquisitions),一是合併(mergers)。對於欲收購或合併其他企業的一方,稱之為收購者、合併者;反之,被收購的一方或被合併的一方則稱之為目標公司,視為收購者或合併者目標公司。
購併對許多企業而言多用於多角化經營、擴張事業版圖的策略手法;因為購併不僅能快速進入市場,利用現有的資源捉住事業的商機,更能藉由購併來提升企業的綜效,快速增加市場占有率,有效改善經營成果。
收購可分為股權收購與資產收購兩種
●股權收購:直接或間接購買目標公司部分或全部的股權,使目標公司成為收購者的轉投資事業,而收購者需承受目標公司一切權利和義務,資產和負債。
●資產收購:收購者只依自己需要而購買目標公司部分或全部的資產,屬於一般資產買賣行為,因此不需承受目標公司的負債。 合併可分為吸收合併和新創合併兩種:
●吸收合併:兩家公司合併後,被合併的公司需申請消滅,所有資產與負債皆由主併公司吸收。
●新創合併:合併的兩家公司同時消滅,而另外登記成立一家新公司,新設公司需承擔兩家消滅公司所有的資產與負債。
■持續升級是企業維持競爭優勢的方式,可行途徑包括:
●大型化:透過規模經濟、範疇經濟等,以降低成本或分散風險。
●全球化:透過國際行銷、國際直接投資、國際策略聯盟,以求擴張市場、尋求資源、克服貿易障礙、分散風險。
●未來的企業經營是無國界經營、全球策略管理。
■企業內外部成長方式
■各種多角化進入方式及其優缺點
■企業購併的動機
■購併失敗的原因: 依據國內外過去的經驗,企業購併成功的案例並不多見,普遍的原因則是購併前缺乏完整的購併策略;其他購併失敗的原因如下:
●購併雙方企業文化及經營理念無法契合。
●處理購併案的經驗不足,購併過程處理不當。
●未能有效留住或激勵被購併企業的重要員工。
●未適當了解被購併公司或其所在的產業。
●未適當辨認及評估風險因素。
●未適當溝通及規畫。
●人員未到位。
●預期購併效益未具體實現。
●隱瞞或虛飾某些實情。
●購併資金規畫不當。
■購併風險管理的步驟:
●風險的辨認:必須認知從事購併中可能潛在的各種(純損)風險。
●風險的衡量。
●損失發生的頻率。
●如果發生損失,對購併成敗的影響如何?
●風險管理策略的選擇:選擇適當的策略,以達成風險管理的目標。
●策略的執行與評估:風險管理策略經選擇採行後,風險管理人員必須切實執行決策,並加以評估檢討,以了解原有決策是否可行,以及是否需對未來不同狀況加以修正改善。
■思科的購併個案:用外部資源成功引進才能、產品、新動力:
●思科能夠長久穩占網路設備的龍頭,最主要是由於它馳名業界的購併策略,從1993年買下第一家公司開始,就持績地購併掌握未來關鍵技術的小公司。
●思科這種以購併為主的成長策略,從首任執行長摩格利(J. Each type of financial markets is described, with a focus on it globalization, it utilization by financial institutions, and its modification by recent events. The course will be focused, sequentially, upon the following major topics:  (1) Introduction  (2) International Rules, Uniform Customs and Practices of Trade  (3) Procedures of International Trade  (4) Creating the Sales  (5) Terms and Conditions of Sales  (6) Formal Offer, Quotation and Acceptance  (7) Sales Contract  (8) Import and Export Licensung  (9) Letter of Credit (10)  Export Inspection and Declaration (11)  Transportation and Insurance (12) Shipping Documents  (13) Import Declaration and Taking Delivery  (14) Export & Import Financing  (15) Foreign Exchange Market Operation (16) Disputes and Claims  (17) International Commercial Arbitration. Designed for beginner students, this course provides systematic approaches to fundamental understanding of the functions and effects of advertising with emphasis on practical applications.   The second objective is to explain the way the plan is created.   This course contains Introduction: A Tour of the World; The Basics of Markets (the Good, Financial and Labor Markets); Expectations; Open Economy; The Supply- Side Economics; Pathologies–High Unemployment and High Inflation; The Long Run; Change and Transition; Policies; The Story of Macroeconomics.   The first part of this course is devoted to the scope and importance of marketing in today’s business world. Strategic Managemen is a course which integrates the concepts and skills of previous functional courses. It hopes to provide the information the student needs to begin a career that in using the financial derivatives to introduce futures, options, swaps and over-the-counter interest rate options etc. 書名:經濟自然學:為什麼經濟學可以解釋幾乎所有的事物,原文名稱:The Economic Naturalist: In Search of Explanations for Everyday.   Part V, Contemporary Financial Problems and Policy, which focuses on the policy, theory, and evidence, so that policy can be comparision, evidence made interesting, and theory appreciated.   Besides learning to understand the research methods, this course train on designing research procedure and practising research process and activities. (B) How to use accounting information in management decision making. Introduction to Hospitality is a comprehensive tour through the fascinating and challenging related fields in the hospitality industry: travel and tourism, lodging, food service, meeting, conventions and expositions, leisure and recreation. Leadership and communication are important managerial activities in business management. In this course, we first examine the characteristics and functions of money.   Main contents include estimation, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, simple and multiple regression analysis, X2  test and nonparametric statistics, and the applications of related statistical package.

更多信息 經濟學作業幫助

  Topics include – theory of finance, working capital management, securities analysis, portfolio management, empirical research in finance, and identifying and solving financial problems through the use of case studies.   Part III, The Theories of the Demand of Money. The realistic course activities held in the class will provide opportunities for students to produce the language they will need in common business situations. Students should learn the impacts of the innovation in information technology on modern organizations, and how to use the emerging information technology to help organizations for achieving their objectives. Customers are the source of all business value. The lectures will introduce the concepts of global marketing that include current market environment, market entry strategies, market analysis, global marketing mix; product, pricing, distribution and promotion and how these principles apply in a global scope. Ƕ“濟學下 Economics (II) Spring 2009 Wan-Yu Liu Department of Applied Natural Resources Aletheia University, Taiwan. Microeconomics focuses on the analysis of price mechanism which involves consumer behavior, firms’ decision making, structure of various markets, and public sector.   There is a need to watch over these ever-changing marketing and logistics activities, even in an academic environment. This course introduces some popular package software, which include spreadsheet, presentation tools, and graphic and text authoring tools. Students will gain an understanding of the vital role the ERP play in achieving business objectives and how they are radically changing the way business gets done. We will tap the business models and mechanism of internet business or e-Business practices.   It examines functions and effects of each elements of advertising, and taps the measurements of its effectiveness in the process in relation to sales results.   While theory is covered, actual studies are emphasized. This course is designed to introduce the general and broad knowledge in transportation systems’ operations management. Due to the continuing development of economic and social activities, the transportation demand of passengers and goods has been increased accordingly. (B) How to use accounting information in management decision making.

This course has been designed to introduce the legal theory and practices of labor laws, in particular for the protection of individual laborers.   It also addresses various techniques generally used in the analysis of financial statement. Solan Fellow)。除此之外也獲得許多獎項,包括二○○九年第一屆印孚瑟斯獎(Infosys Prize),並且擔任世界銀行、印度政府等組織的榮譽顧問。

艾絲特.杜芙若(Esther Duflo)

麻省理工學院經濟系 Abdul Latif Jameel 減緩貧窮與發展經濟學講座教授(Abdul Latif Jameel Professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics)。畢業於巴黎高等師範學院(École Normale Supérieure)以及麻省理工學院,於麻省理工學院取得博士學位之後,隨即獲聘為該校經濟系助理教授,並且任教至今,同時是美國文理科學院與世界計量經濟學會院士,也曾經獲得許多獎項,二○一○年取得著名的克拉克獎章(John Bates Clark Medal),這個獎項是表彰美國四十歲以下最傑出的經濟學家;二○○九年獲得麥克阿瑟「天才」獎學金(MacArthur “genius” Fellowship),並且在二○一○年取得首屆卡沃—阿蒙哥國際獎(Calvó-Armengol International Prize)。《經濟學人》(The Economist)將她評為當今世上最好的八位經濟學家之一;《外交政策》(Foreign Policy)在二○○八至二○一○年將她列為世界上最有影響力的一百個思想家之一;二○一○年《財富》(Fortune)雜誌將她列為當今四十歲以下最有影響力的四十個商業領袖之一。

二○○三年,兩位作者共同成立了 Abdul Latif Jameel 貧窮行動實驗室(J-PAL),並共同主持實驗室至今。J-PAL 是一個由教授組成的研究網路,在全球五個地方設有辦公室,一起使用隨機控制實驗來回答如何消解貧窮這個重要的問題。J-PAL 的任務在於確保政策是以科學證據為基礎,藉以減少貧窮。二○○九年 J-PAL 贏得西班牙外換銀行(BBVA)在發展合作領域的知識前沿獎(Frontier of Knowledge),二○一四年 J-PAL 獲得美國社會科學研究委員會(Social Science Research Council)最高榮譽赫緒曼獎(Albert O. 第三階段:供應鏈整合管理。
這階段提升至參與各方的協同,包括策略性規畫與風險分享。各層級的訊息交流已不再局限於與交易或數據相關,而是包括各種不同的資訊。 第四階段:需求/供應網絡協同。供應鏈中各廠商之間的合作互動與主動作用,是建立在「自由、且同步地在供應網路中流動的重要資訊」基礎上。
**■存貨問題
**物料管理主要是在處理耗材、存貨、生產水準與配銷等的一種短程的決策。物料普遍存在於每一產業的每一個組織,且隨著生產技術的進展,物料成本占銷貨成本的比重愈來愈大。存貨可以定義為「為準備未來之用所存放的各種閒置物料、在製品、成品、組件、消耗品等」,其產生的主要原因有4種:安全存貨(safety stock)、預期存貨(anticipation inventory)、批量存貨(lot-size inventory)及在途存貨(pipeline inventory)。
存貨管理系統的主要目標是在達到顧客最高滿意度的同時,也使總成本降到最低。任何一個存貨管理系統都需回答兩個基本的問題,即:
(1)何時訂購?
(2)訂購多少?
而一個有效率的存貨管理系統需同時具備以下要素:
●存貨紀錄系統以記錄庫存量及在途庫存量。
●一個可靠的需求預測方法。
●對前置期及其變異的認知
●合理估計持有成本、缺貨成本及準備成本。
●物料分類系統(ABC分析)。
■排程規畫與維護問題 排程規畫係對未來欲完成的工作給予設定時間,它將產能規畫與生產計畫的結果(包括設備、人力與空間等),分配到各項工作、活動或顧客上,並調和效率、存貨水準與服務水準3個相互衝突的目標,而獲得下列的好處:
●安排未來新工作的進度,使整個工作(製程或業務)保持在最短的時間內。
●確定產品的交貨日期,提高服務品質。
●確保外購原料、零件、機具等,能夠配合生產需要,而且能及時獲得。
●預知生產的瓶頸及物料零件短缺部分,而預先解決。
●使整個工作負荷平衡。
●使存貨維持在較低水平。 一般分析的方法包括:最適基礎下的排程、分派原則與模擬基礎下的排程、限制基礎下的排程、以及製造業與服務業的特殊排程。 維護問題屬於技術性與專業性領域,因此較少在作業管理課程中加以介紹。. 已有4 次阅读 2016-4-14 15:49 |系统分类:教学心得|文章来源 :转载.   It will be examined mainly from the basic functions of human resource management, which include trends in human resource management, job analysis, human resource planning, employment, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation, labor relations, and international human resource management. Financial markets facilitate the flow of funds in order to finance investments by corporations, governments, and individuals. The electronic commerce here refers to conducting the business via modern communication technologies, which can be classified into two 类别 of business-to-business and business-to-consumer. The hope is that greater exposure to/interaction with these real-world practitioners will “bring to life” some of the issues discussed in textbooks.   After that, the basic chemical concepts, biotechnology, new energy and medical industries will be mentioned. It also discusses the techniques and principles employed by banks in the performance of many functions that related to individuals as well as business.   The students will be presented with challenging cases and questions to which they can apply their skills and sharpen their understandings, especially,with competitive view. Finally, we will introduce one of the most important trends in the near future: Electronic Business. The primary goal of this course is to let the students obtain the information literacy—understanding, knowledge and interaction. This course will also introduce marketing research cases and make familarizing strategies of modern marketing research and  statistical and analytical softwares for marketing research.   The second part focuses on variables external to the firm: consumer behavior, market segmentation and market dimensions and market structure.

Hence, this course will first introduce the meanings and implications of business distribution, then we will talk about the difference between the traditional distribution model and the network based distribution. For the differences existing between service and manufacturing sectors, the traditional manufacturing-based models are mot always useful to service businesses.   It also addresses various techniques generally used in the analysis of financial statement. This course discusses in depth the financial accounting. Moreover, the goal of course will be accomplished through assignments of case study and discussion, and team research projects. 不管你想什麼                                                                                                                                          你看                                                                                                                                                          沙子   你要它是什麼它就是什麼                                                                                                             一座城堡   堡壘   牆壁                                                                                                                             它也可以是隧道  是球  是一個洞   或是一艘船   或是一張椅子                                                     或是一碗布丁   可以吃                                                                                                                      一座花園   或是墓園   或是小山崗                                                                                                   隨你的便                                                                                                                                                  你要沙子是什麼   它就是什麼                                                                                                          一直到你回家去喝茶吃點心  . Financial markets facilitate the flow of funds in order to finance investments by corporations, governments, and individuals.   Upon the basis of Fundamental Marketing or Marketing Management, Direct Marketing is further to tap how to shorten the distance between offering and purchasing. Therefore, many new customer service theories and methods have been created. Banking has always been playing a very important role in our daily life as an individual or a business enterprise. )  What is the role of marketing research in competitive analysis, product liability, trade name infringement, and antitrust.   Part III, The Theories of the Demand of Money.

Computer is a main tool for information system in the information age. By case study and event discussion, students would be able to gain more insights in both theory and practice for future applications. Leadership and communication are important managerial activities in business management. The objective of financial markets describes financial markets and the financial institutions that serve those markets. He’s also interested in language acquisition and ESL. The definition of Decision Support System (DSS) can be shown as the interactive computer-based systems to help decision makers use data and model to solve semistructured problems.   Part II, The Theories of the Supply of Money.   It is why another popular name for logistics is the flow of goods. In this course, we first examine the characteristics and functions of money. This course will help students to understand the theory and practices about the relations between laborer and management. Even in the Asia Pacific, it is estimated that the market value of electronic commerce will also grow rapidly. Globalization thus plays a significant role in today’s world economy. We will be spending a substantial amount of time on the discussion of a few business case studies. The course will be focused, sequentially, upon the following major topics:  (1) Introduction  (2) International Rules, Uniform Customs and Practices of Trade  (3) Procedures of International Trade  (4) Creating the Sales  (5) Terms and Conditions of Sales  (6) Formal Offer, Quotation and Acceptance  (7) Sales Contract  (8) Import and Export Licensung  (9) Letter of Credit (10)  Export Inspection and Declaration (11)  Transportation and Insurance (12) Shipping Documents  (13) Import Declaration and Taking Delivery  (14) Export & Import Financing  (15) Foreign Exchange Market Operation (16) Disputes and Claims  (17) International Commercial Arbitration.   Topics covered include the conceptual framework underlying financial 、 basic assumptions and principles ; the review of accounting concepts and procedures of assets 、 liabilities 、 stockholders’ equity and revenue recognition ; accounting for income taxes 、 pensions 、 and leases ; statement of cash flows ; accounting changes and error analysis 。. This course will make a complete basic introduction of general human resource management in business.   The course also introduces the ISO 9001-2000 , National Quality Award, 6 Sigma.

The objective of financial markets describes financial markets and the financial institutions that serve those markets. This course introduces various techniques used in quality control and quality management, and exemplifies how quality management can improve an enterprise profitability by decreasing product defects, increasing customer satisfaction and product competitiveness. This course provides an in-depth analysis of how accounting helps stockholders, creditors and analysts in decision-making. Brand value = product value + image value. Initially, I will describe present tax rules and regulations, as well as the spirits of code and the foundations of the theory. In addition to help students understand the nature of human resource management, the purpose of the course is to help students learn to analyze and solve problems of human resource management through case study and discussion, and team research project. Financial management course put emphasis on practical financial operations, so as to equip student’s skills to dispose of actual financial management situations. The lectures will introduce the concepts of global marketing that include current market environment, market entry strategies, market analysis, global marketing mix; product, pricing, distribution and promotion and how these principles apply in a global scope. It provides an overview of laws on trademark, patent, copyright, protection of semi-conductor chip products and trade secrets.   In fact that international business operates in different nation means that they must operate within the context of varied national requirements and cultural expectations.

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  This course contains Introduction: A Tour of the World; The Basics of Markets (the Good, Financial and Labor Markets); Expectations; Open Economy; The Supply- Side Economics; Pathologies–High Unemployment and High Inflation; The Long Run; Change and Transition; Policies; The Story of Macroeconomics. We discuss investment functions, introduce various investment tools and explain the investment decision-making process as well as the reason.   Selected topics include: Compensation system, compensation structure, job analysis and job evaluation, the design of basis for pay, short term and long term performance pay, incentive plans, benefits, and compensation system administration.   While theory is covered, actual studies are emphasized.   The area of study emphasizes managerial decisions in production or operations and their interrelationships with other organizational functions, focusing on operational strategy, operation system design (product design, capacity planning,  location decision, process and job design, facility planning), operations planning and controlling (forecasting, aggregate planning, scheduling, inventory management, and project management), and quality management. 浙江电大柯桥学院BBS → 专科班教学讨论区 → 金融(专) → 西方经济学作业答案4. Procurement is one of the most important functions of business activities. It provides an overview of laws on trademark, patent, copyright, protection of semi-conductor chip products and trade secrets. In the new era, business has to respond strategically, and transform itself to conduct the business electronically. The objective of financial markets describes financial markets and the financial institutions that serve those markets.   In fact that international business operates in different nation means that they must operate within the context of varied national requirements and cultural expectations.   A list of the topics which will be emphasized in the course including, for example, the gain from trade, the Heckscher-Ohlin theorem and the Leontief paradox, the factor price  equalization  theorem, the Stolper-Samuelson  and the Rybczyncki theorem, economic growth and international trade, tariffs taxes, and subsidies, the theory of economic integration.   Followed by the marketing mix concept. The goals of this course is to help students have a clear and real understanding on organizational behaviors.

Conversation : To teach students the English they will need to communicate effectively in a professional environment

Financial management course put emphasis on practical financial operations, so as to equip student’s skills to dispose of actual financial management situations.   The students will be presented with challenging cases and questions to which they can apply their skills and sharpen their understandings, especially,with competitive view. This course will also introduce marketing research cases and make familarizing strategies of modern marketing research and  statistical and analytical softwares for marketing research.   The course will make students: (1) Familiar with the process of strategy formulation and implementation (2) Able to conduct situational analysis and scenario planning.   In general, macroeconomics studies aggregate economic variables, such as production for the economy as a whole (aggregate output) or the average price of all goods (the aggregate price level). We will be spending a substantial amount of time on the discussion of a few business case studies.   They are: Law of Bills and Notes (Negotiable Instruments); Admiralty Law and Law of Insurance. Thus, this class provides different frameworks to analyze marketing topics including consumer behavior, 4Ps, service delivery and the impact of new information technology.   In fact that international business operates in different nation means that they must operate within the context of varied national requirements and cultural expectations.   This course draws on the expertise of several guest speakers, including senior managers, consultants, and academics.   It also provides the users of financial analysis and decision making and best practice by means of on-line train. This course is designed to introduce the general and broad knowledge in transportation systems’ operations management.   Part I, Introduction to Monetary Theory and Policy.   Through researches and seminars geared to the contemporary topics in marketing and logistics, senior business students could gain better insight to these important business topics, thus equip them with better knowledge background and far-sight to enter the real would to do their jobs, hopefully better. The purpose of this course is to introduce and discuss how to use these software tools properly to improve personal productivity and work performance. 浪來了                                                                                                                                                 將你的努力   你的成果   你的計畫                                                                                                   全部清洗過                                                                                                                                              結果沙子又只是沙子了  .

Leadership and communication are important managerial activities in business management. This course will include the structural concepts and detailed statements of BASIC, Visual BASIC and HTML, also make some practical examples and use flow chart to help students catch the programming concepts. This course will cover the concept and major features in hardware(CPU, memory, I/O devices) and software(system software and application software);also learn how to operate window98, Word on the PC system, and how to use browser in the Internet/WWW. These topics include international economy and society development, global organization’s strategic planning, human resource, marketing, finance, and production. Each type of financial markets is described, with a focus on it globalization, it utilization by financial institutions, and its modification by recent events.   This course contains ample material for a four-credit lasting two semesters. This course introduces to students several widely used statistical methods. This course will systematically introduce students the knowledge, methods and cases of the customer service and management to help them establish the right attitude and concepts of the customer service and management.

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Due to the continuing development of economic and social activities, the transportation demand of passengers and goods has been increased accordingly.   The second part focuses on variables external to the firm: consumer behavior, market segmentation and market dimensions and market structure. This course provides a working knowledge of the financial instruments available to investors and the ways in which markets for these instruments operate. By case study and event discussion, students would be able to gain more insights in both theory and practice for future applications. Economics explores choice behavior of human beings.   It will be examined mainly from the basic functions of human resource management, which include trends in human resource management, job analysis, human resource planning, employment, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation, labor relations, and international human resource management. However, the basic business of banking is unchanged. In addition to traditional class discussions, this course will include many presentations by various guest speakers. 可以看出新的企業世界,其經濟成長動力已由資訊轉變為生物物質,在組織策略上,也由價值鏈進展到價值網;在外在焦點上也有更大的轉變。 對於未來作業管理的發展趨勢,大致可以歸納如。
利用科技提供針對個別顧客所需的低價訂製產品,過程中不太需要人力介入。新型的製造系統被形容為敏捷而帶有智慧,有代客「量身打造」的能力;它的電腦和機器人能自動接受訂單、決定生產日程、移動零組件、建構產品,甚至自行維修及重新設定其他系統。
未來將有更精巧的軟體不斷被設計出來,每一個皆可藉助電腦提供構想、設計與生產大綱,而成為單人「桌上製造商」,全世界將有太多這種人才讓你挑選與利用,而能創造出更多的附加價值,這也是未來要從供應鏈走向供應網的主要原因。
一種新流程稱為「快速原型」(Rapid prototyping)將結合新的數位機械和新物質,把製造原型的時間減到接近於零,並大量節省成本;再配合平行流程(parallel processing)的發展,所提供的優勢不只是速度而已,如提供一個以上的處理器、提供一個複製的層面,能大量減少單一系統在執行重要任務失靈的影響。
可以想像當上述兩種技術結合的效果,將會使目前的產品與設計,以及流程管理做法,有大幅度的修改。
不久的將來,多功能處理晶片、智慧卡(smart cards)、感應裝置(sensors)、知識機器人、神經網路/模糊邏輯、智慧原料、生物科技與奈米機械(nano and pico machine)的新產品與新科技,將陸續被廣泛的推廣與應用。
新的企業營運觀念與做法導入以後,作業管理所討論的主題,可能又要重新組合,說不定連名稱都要改變,我們就拭目以待吧!. This course attempts to strike a balance between institutional details, theoretical foundations and practical applications. (4) Able to conduct oral and write business reports.   The topics introduced are (1) The evolution of management thought; (2) The management  process include – planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. The characteristic of this course included industry analysis and technology. In the new era, business has to respond strategically, and transform itself to conduct the business electronically. This course introduces the concepts, components, and the technical foundations of information systems, the relationships between information system and organization, management, and decision, and variant types of the applications of information systems. (3) Able to integrate the concepts in various management courses. Microeconomic analysis allows decision makers to evaluate the consequences of alternative actions and thus provides a basis to make rational choices and predict future events.

Hence, this course will emphasize teaching how to apply theories of leadership and communication to practical business activities. How can new products and services be successfully introduced in the marketplace.   Therefore, the management theory and practice of logistics are mostly established in the field relating to the physical movement of goods. Financial management course put emphasis on practical financial operations, so as to equip student’s skills to dispose of actual financial management situations. 維護問題
■產品與服務的設計 產品與服務的設計是轉換過程中最重要的一環,跟一般競爭策略一樣,以差異化、成本領導與快速反應三個軸心,做設計的考量標準。
21世紀的顧客,對於產品有更寬廣的詮釋與更精明的選擇,尤其是開創的技術愈來愈少,加上產品壽命愈來愈短,因此不必一味追求主要機能的突破,而改在產品的因素及內容上下功夫,包括產品的形狀、大小、顏色等,甚至包裝也是在設計時的重要考量。同時也不能光注意顧客看得到的部分,對於顧客看不到、但可以感受到的部分,也是未來設計時要考量的因素之一;尤其是服務業的產品設計,必須注意服務觸點、服務契機點。對於情境因子的掌握及可見線的安排,都是設計的重點,在難度與掌握上遠比製造業高。
■品質管理 近年來品質管理的範圍已從傳統有形的品質,擴張到各部門與各階層,舉凡管理品質、人的品質、工作品質與服務品質等,皆需要深入加以探討。顧客滿意經常被當作衡量品質的重要指標,而顧客滿意是由產品特色與無缺陷兩個元素來達成。產品特色是指產品的品質,受到產品式樣、成本、公司政策、產品需求、可用原料及產品安全性等因素的影響;無缺陷是指符合性的品質,乃為量測產品與原設計規格的符合程度。
■過程與產能設計 過程設計乃在決定如何生產產品及提供服務,及如何選擇輸入資源、操作程序、工作流程及作業方法。這個階段必須考慮4個因素:
(1)垂直整合
(2)資源彈性
(3)顧客參與
(4)資本密集
不管做如何選擇,最重要要達成顧客滿意及成本要求兩個目標。一般用彈性及單位成本素來做區隔,把生產型態分成
(1)工作站
(2)批次
(3)裝配線
(4)連續性生產,近年來製造業流行彈性製造系統及電腦整合製造,未來可能朝向虛擬生產線方向邁進。
■位置選擇與設備布置
**位置選擇與設備布置,一般通稱為設施規畫。一個企業在決定製造(或服務)的策略與程序後,馬上要面臨在哪裡設立製造工廠或服務位置的問題。
其考量因素甚多,包括顧客的接近度、供應商的地點、勞工的品質、水電設備的完整性、政治的安全性與治安情況等。設備布置的探討在決定各部門、各工作站或存貨點的最適當位置,在適宜的機具安排及順暢的物料流程或人員流動的情況下,會產生高效率的生產製程(或服務流程)。
在設備布置之前,必須先考量輸入的資料,包括界定作業系統的輸出入與彈性目標、系統內產品或服務需求的預測值、各部門間的作業個數與流量、空間的大小等。製造業一般的工作流程以此輸入資料,可分為產品線布置、程序布置、固定式布置、群組技術布置及混合式布置5種。服務業的目標則是希望每單位面積的獲利率(即坪效)最大,基本考量為周圍的環境、空間布置及符號標誌等,如物流中心需依倉庫的特色及不同搬運設備為主要考量因素,辦公室布置考量因素則為接近性及隱私性。
**■工作設計與工作衡量
工作設計及一般所謂的動作研究(motion study),或稱為方法設計(method design),其目的乃在於發展一套較好的系統和方法,通常指成本較低、效率較高者,並將這套系統和方法標準化。
工作衡量(work measurement)乃與時間研究(time study)同義語,係測定一個受過適當訓練的工人,在正常作業情況下,完成每一特定工作或作業所需的時間,並訓練工人執行此一較好的系統和方法。工作設計與工作衡量是屬於方略性的範圍,可以隨生產環境的變遷而改變原有狀態,不像設備與廠房,一旦決定好之後,即不易加以改變。工作設計與工作衡量乃結合其他各種因素,以期獲得員工高生產力與高品質的目標。
**■供應鏈管理
**供應鏈是指從採購、製造所需的未經加工產品及物料,一直到將成品送達終端顧客手中一連串介於交易夥伴(包括原料供應商、製造商、批發商、零售商等)之間所有的商業活動(包括物流、資訊流、金流等)的過程。企業為了追求運作效率的提升、並進而創造出更多的企業價值,不應只拘泥於追求企業內部流程的改善,而是應該就協同運作的觀點,將焦點轉移至動態價值鏈管理(dynamic value chain management)的議題上,即是指企業協同供應商共同致力於產品創意,一直到最終把產品遞交給最終客戶的完整流程。
供應鏈管理是企業交易夥伴共同承諾一起緊密合作,並有效率及效益地管理供應鏈中的資訊流、金流,以期在付出最少整體供應成本的情況下,為消費者或顧客帶來更大的價值。 一般可從4個階段來探討:. In this course, we will invite four visiting professors, who come from different foreign areas or countries, to lecture on the topics in international management or economics. We discuss investment functions, introduce various investment tools and explain the investment decision-making process as well as the reason. In fact, BASIC language is still a preliminary programming for beginners.

  The simple contents of this course will lead all students without technology background to appreciate all high technology industries. In addition, considering influence of native culture, this course will also introduce characteristics of psychology and behaviors of Chinese, and the possible influences on their organizational behaviors. This course introduces some popular package software, which include spreadsheet, presentation tools, and graphic and text authoring tools.   It will be examined with analysis of three aspects of influence, individual, group and organization, on human behaviors in organization. This course introduces to students several widely used statistical methods. Case analyses and discussions will allow students to apply these concepts in a business environment. 通則, 2 、所有權, 3 、地上權, 4 、永佃權, 5 、地役權, 6 、抵押權, 7 、質權, 8 、典權, 9 、留置權, 10 、占有。 ( 四 ) 親屬。 ( 五 ) 繼承。. Banerjee)

畢業於加爾各答大學(University of Calcutta)、尼赫魯大學(Jawaharlal Nehru University)與哈佛大學,目前是麻省理工學院經濟系福特基金會國際講座教授(Ford Foundation International Professor)。曾經擔任經濟發展分析與研究局(The Bureau for Research and Economic Analysis of Development)的主任、美國國家經濟研究局(NBER)以及經濟政策研究中心(CEPR)研究員,同時也是德國基爾世界經濟研究院(Kiel Institute)的國際研究員,以及美國文理科學院(American Academy of Arts and Sciences)與世界計量經濟學會(Economertic Society)院士。曾獲古根漢獎學金(Guggenheim Fellow)以及史龍獎學金(Alfred P.

Introduction to Hospitality is a comprehensive tour through the fascinating and challenging related fields in the hospitality industry: travel and tourism, lodging, food service, meeting, conventions and expositions, leisure and recreation

This course is to study the nature of human behaviors in organization. First, this course tries to extend the scope of formal marketing management course which was taught in the second year of the student two years ago. This course introduces to students several widely used statistical methods.   In the process of goods movement, the value of goods will increase and the customer demand can be satisfied. 本課程以介紹民法學的基礎理論及 民法之基本原理原則,內容計分: ( 一 ) 總則: 1. In addition, the problems of monetary policy and instruments are explained. An introductory survey of quantitative techniques in decision-making.   Selected topics include: Compensation system, compensation structure, job analysis and job evaluation, the design of basis for pay, short term and long term performance pay, incentive plans, benefits, and compensation system administration. Financial institutions are the key players in financial markets because they serve as intermediaries that determine the flow of funds.

http://ebook.cchs.chc.edu.tw/books/sap-cchs/2/ 102學年度-優質化 ...

The first reason to study macroeconomics is that it will help you understand the whole world in which you live—from the transformation of Eastern Europe, to high unemployment in Western Europe, to fast growth or crises in Asia, to the budget battles in the United States. Furthermore, this course will discuss the impacts and effects of the network distribution on the contemporary industries in Taiwan. )  What is the role of marketing research in competitive analysis, product liability, trade name infringement, and antitrust.   Learning this course, the students may understand the basic Commercial Law which will benefit their future.   Main contents include estimation, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, simple and multiple regression analysis, X2  test and nonparametric statistics, and the applications of related statistical package. This course introduces the concepts, components, and the technical foundations of information systems, the relationships between information system and organization, management, and decision, and variant types of the applications of information systems. There is a great change in modern business organizational structure. Overall, The designing of this course is planned to make students have a fundamental understanding of marketing research and be able to do the research.   The students will be presented with challenging cases and questions to which they can apply their skills and sharpen their understandings, especially,with competitive view. Though in-depth analysis and debates in classes, students will be able to develop a professional perspective in marketing communication planning. 吳宗昇/輔大社會系副教授、卡債受害人自救會顧問

洪伯勳/《製造低收入戶》作者

洪敬舒/工作貧窮與租稅政策研究室召集人

周于萱/臺灣青年勞動九五聯盟理事長

黃益中/熱血公民教師、《思辨》作者

黃嵩立/國立陽明大學國際衛生學程教授

蔡明璋/中央研究院亞太區域研究中心研究員兼執行長

簡錫堦/反貧困聯盟召集人

推薦序

富裕的家庭都是相似的,貧窮的家庭則各有各的不幸/林明仁

托爾斯泰在鉅著《安娜‧卡列尼娜》的開場白說道:「幸福的家庭都是相似的,不幸的家庭各有各的不幸。」讓我借用文豪的邏輯,將其改寫為:「富裕的家庭都是相似的,貧窮的家庭則各有各的不幸。」本書兩位作者 Banerjee 與 Duflo 過去二十年來致力瞭解窮人如何落至如此不幸的境地,以及有哪些可能的解決政策。更重要的是,他們發展出一套以隨機控制實驗(randomized controlled trial, RCT)為主軸的評估方法,更讓我們對貧窮的瞭解,從理論層次進步到有可以與理論對話的實證基礎。這本《窮人的經濟學》,就是他們研究結果的非技術介紹(non-technical summary),也是貧窮研究的必讀入門書。

如何定義窮人?對台灣的讀者來說,我們可能會覺得月薪 22K,付完房租、 餐費跟其他必要開支後,只剩下幾千元,應該就屬於吃土魯蛇一族了。但如果從全世界的角度來看,這還算是中等收入:二○一五年諾貝爾經濟學獎得主 Angus Deaton 從購買力平價的角度出發,計算出貧窮線應為每日支出低於 1 塊美金(房租除外)!這筆大約一個御飯糰的錢,在印度大概可以買 15 根小香蕉。而在這麼低的標準下,全世界仍然有超過 10% 的人每日生活費是低於這個數目!因此本書主要聚焦的,不是每日生活費仍有 20 塊美金的已開發國家低所得工作者,而是從全世界的角度來看,在生存邊緣掙扎,真正窮苦的人們。

有人類以來就有窮人。考古遺址中有許多精緻飾品陪葬的,就是當時的富人,只有少許器物的家境較差。而最窮的人,恐怕早就因為被草草埋葬而無法在現代被挖掘出來了。由於缺乏資源與權力,窮人在歷史的記載中一向不受重視(通常是以飢民的型態出現),所以文學作品就成了我們對貧窮者生命歷程的重要來源。然而,不論是關漢卿筆下說出:「為善的受貧窮更命短,造惡的享富貴又壽延」的竇娥,或者是在雨果的《悲慘世界》因偷竊一塊麵包而被判刑十九年的尚萬強,雖然讓我們感動、同情,且因自己無力對他們作些什麼而感到自責,但也容易讓我們選擇了一個簡單的看法與解方:將貧窮怪罪於財團的貪婪、政府的無能、以及資本主義的弊病。彷彿只要打倒惡魔黨,美麗新世界就會來臨。另一個極端,則是認為窮人之所以淪落到這步田地,都是因為他們懶惰、不投資自己的人力資本、愛冒風險所以生意容易失敗、個性不愛與人交際、當街友反而更自由自在的緣故。因此一切都是他們咎由自取,與社會結構無關。

隨著這些簡化的誤解與歸因而來的,是簡化的解答。而兩位作者認為,這其實就是人類社會在對抗貧窮上面遲遲無法取得進展的最主要原因。窮人雖然擁有的東西不多,但這並不代表他們的生活不複雜有趣;事實可能正好相反:就是因為手頭拮据,所以窮人們必需更像個斤斤計較的經濟學家才能生存下來。許多在一般人眼裡微不足道的制度調整、社會改變,或自己所犯的錯誤,都會對窮人造成很大的影響。從這個角度切入,每一個選擇對窮人來說都是關鍵。

因此,對抗貧窮的政策比起其他領域的公共政策來說,更需要跨領域的討論、審慎的評估與精確的測量。Banerjee 與 Duflo 在這方面所做的努力,可說是無人能出其右。兩人全面的瞭解窮人在家庭、經濟與政治生活上所面臨的各種挑戰(經濟學家稱此為制度性細節〔institutional details〕),以及使用經濟學與其他學科如心理學等的概念來建構理論,收集可以衡量這些因果關係的變數資料(是的,沒有測量,就沒有科學),並且有系統的使用科學方法(主要使用的是 RCT 及其他應用個體經濟學常用的分析工具,如工具變數、差異中的差異、以及回歸不連續)等,作者兩人在以上各層面都有非常大的貢獻。而他們將所有制度細節、理論、資料、計量方法、以及面訪所得的結果加以消化並整合出一個體系的功力,在這十幾年來累積的研究成果與對政策的影響力上展露無遺,堪稱經濟學家入世的最佳典範。

我在此就以第七章〈來自喀布爾的男人與印度太監:窮人貸款的簡單(不簡單)經濟學〉為例,介紹他們的分析手法。在印度,窮人們作小生意的生財器具都是租來的,可是只要把每天的租金存下來,幾個禮拜就可以買到好幾台推車!但為什麼沒人這樣做?這些人的回答是:「除了高利貸業者,沒人願意借錢給我!」為了幫助這些人,經濟學家 Yunus 創建了孟加拉鄉村銀行,以微型信貸給因貧窮而無法獲得傳統銀行貸款的創業者,以改善他們因流動性限制(liquidity constraint)而無法翻身的問題,他也因此獲得二○○六年的諾貝爾和平獎。

不過這個有理想有熱情的經濟學者入世拯救窮人的感人故事背後,存在一個巨大的問題:微型信貸到底有沒有用?當二○○二年 Banerjee 與 Duflo 對這些微型信貸機構提出這個問題時,這些人的第一個反應是:「為什麼我們要像賣水果的攤販一樣接受評估?」接著他們提出一些經由微型信貸翻身的窮人當作例子,並且提到人們也會一直來借錢就是最好的證據。最後再很熱血的說:「我們是熱心奉獻的非營利組織,而且堅信小額信貸是幫助窮人最好的方式!」可是這些人忘了,微型信貸接受了非常多的政策補貼,而在資源有限的情況下,如果微型信貸沒用,那麼政府的補貼不是就該移到別處嗎?

兩位作者最後終於說服了其中一家最賺錢的微型信貸,讓他們以前述的 RCT 作實驗,結果如下:在隨機設立據點的社區中,人們創業的比例的確增加了,但只是從 5% 增加到 7% 而已。兩位作者認為雖然效果不大,但小額信貸應該已經站上正確的位置。不過必須注意的是:此一政策的重點,不在於借到錢的機率是否增加,而是較容易借到錢之後,對這些窮人的生活產生了什麼樣的改變。接下來就有非常多的學者使用不同的方法,在不同的地區評估微型信貸的影響。

Duflo 主編的 American Economic Journal: Applied Economics,在二○一五年第一期就刊出了地區涵蓋波士尼亞、衣索比亞、印度、墨西哥、摩洛哥以及蒙古,時間從二○○三到二○一二年的研究成果。這幾篇研究基本上都指向相同的結論:微型信貸的確增加借到錢的機率(take up rate),但是效果普通(modest〔大約 20% 左右〕),這些家庭參與的商業活動也增加了(這表示借到的錢有投入在生意上)。但是比較麻煩的是,即便可以借到錢作生意,然而這六篇研究都無法找到微型信貸可以提高窮人家庭所得的證據!不過幾個研究倒是發現微型信貸儘管增加了商業所得,卻減少了家庭的薪資所得(整體所得效果相互抵銷)。所以 Banerjee 把這些結果詮釋成:「至少讓人們獲得更多在職業上選擇的自由(it does afford people more freedom in their choices e.   Then, the functions and operations of commercial banks, the principles and tools of central banking and the role and structure of other financial institutions and financial markets are described. The development of the marketing and logistics aspect of business has been impacted greatly by the business competition, the globalization of business operations, and the advancement of technology.

Many businesses start to recognize the true meaning and value of their customers. Due to the continuing development of economic and social activities, the transportation demand of passengers and goods has been increased accordingly. The essence of business is the transaction between two parties.   The aim of this course is to explain how these differences and international economic and technology trend, affect the management of enterprises that are international.   It will be examined with analysis of three aspects of influence, individual, group and organization, on human behaviors in organization. The central theme of this course is that to survive in the corporate world and take effective action within it, the signification corporate realities must be understood, anticipated , and appropriately dealt with. Warehousing and transportation are two important factors affecting the performance of a distribution channel. We will tap the business models and mechanism of internet business or e-Business practices.   Specifically, the expenditure of materials usually makes up 60-80% of manufacturing cost, then the procurement performance will significantly affect the operating results.   In general, macroeconomics studies aggregate economic variables, such as production for the economy as a whole (aggregate output) or the average price of all goods (the aggregate price level).   This evolutionary process has never stopped and even speeded up in recent years.

  We hope to deepen the students’ comprehensive understanding of basic issues in business and motivate them interesting in the advanced business courses. Morgridge)開始,很早就認識到,思科必須利用它在路由器市場上的支配地位,趁勢進入網路產業的各個連接部門,如果有任何公司能夠有助於思科更快進入一個新市場,他就會把它買下來。
●另一方面來看,購併並不容易,思科卻總是可以從公司外部,把才能、產品以及新動力引進來,形成公司的競爭優勢,可說是最會善用外部資源的公司。
●思科的併購策略:
◇思科購併公司的類型為「能幫助思科更快進入下一個新市場」「掌握客戶所需要的科技」「掌握未來關鍵技術的新創公司」。
◇秉持著引入「才能」「技術」「產品」及「動力」的原則,並非只是單單地搶下市占率或單一技術,而會將新的技術或人才帶進公司的營運理念,讓思科更加茁壯。 購併所需的資金成本不低,思科為何可以一再地購併呢?
◇首先,思科的股價長期來不斷向上攀升,在矽谷甚至被稱為「思科貨幣」(Cisco dollars),這使得它有充沛資源進行向外擴張。
◇其次,它從不為了增加市場占有率或是擴充客戶而購併競爭對手,它總是購併那些掌握未來科技的新創公司,將它們的技術、人才帶進思科,讓思科有更好的表現,股價繼續上升,所以又有錢去進行其他的購併。
●併購後的重要動作:
◇留住員工:人才是思科購併後最重視的部分,人資部門將會進行一系列重新認股等動作,留住新購併公司的員工。
◇促成新產品發展:購併的目的是引進新技術創造新產品,因此思科會盡量讓新購併的公司,趕快步上思科新產品發展的軌道,以便生產新產品給顧客。
◇投資報酬:思科一旦成功購併,會盡快使購併的成果產生投資報酬,如馬上把購併公司的產品列進思科的產品清單內,讓消費者選購。另一方面,思科購併的公司多屬擁有創新科技的小公司,本身品牌、通路都比不上思科,所一旦掛上思科品牌即利用思科的通路販賣,將有較高的投資報酬。
■小小的國家也能透過購併不斷地成長
●教育為冰島打造許多新國際人,小小30萬的人口中,隨時都有8000人留洋在外,其中九成學成後選擇歸國,挹注國家源源不絕的新動力,讓冰島成為平均每人出版最多圖書、閱讀率最高的國家。
●1986年蓋曼森兄弟成立一家供應零售商生鮮魚獲的公司,之後他們迅速擴展到歐洲,產品也增加了各種處理過的肉品。2002年他們直接賣掉獲利較差的水產部,專賣各種冷凍肉品或熟食。
●2003年這家公司被美國《商業周刊》(Business Week)選為歐洲火熱成長企業的第三名,英國最大連鎖超市特易購(TESCO)的許多生鮮、即食食品就是來自這對冰島兄弟。
●近幾年冰島企業家在歐洲購併市場,活躍進攻,已經買下英國、法國、丹麥的百貨、食品、房地產、玩具、服飾、珠寶等行業;也在芬蘭、挪威、瑞典與瑞士、英國購併同業。
●《經濟學人》(The Economist)不禁讚嘆,小國冰島儼然成為歐洲購併勢力的生力軍,而且他們懂得發揮槓桿,用歐洲其他國家的資金去買這些企業。.   The course starts with an introduction of the environment of international financial management.   Topics include – theory of finance, working capital management, securities analysis, portfolio management, empirical research in finance, and identifying and solving financial problems through the use of case studies. Even in the Asia Pacific, it is estimated that the market value of electronic commerce will also grow rapidly. Students will study the background, strategy, production process, creative executions and results of these campaigns.   In fact that international business operates in different nation means that they must operate within the context of varied national requirements and cultural expectations. Broadly speaking, the transactions within the EC activities involve the distribution of goods, services from the manufacturers to the retailers. 一般人所謂的生產,常指狹義的生產,即為工廠製造商品的活動。廣義的生產乃是經濟學所謂的生產,即凡變更物的形狀、位置、時間或產權,而增加效用的行為,都可稱為生產。
任何一種生產,均需投入各項生產要素為動力,如機器、土地、資本與原料等,經一定的結合,轉變為各種產品,其過程如。 狹義的企業營運是針對轉換過程的有效掌握,形成一門較技術化與專業性的學問,而衍生出早期生產管理的研究領域。
由於生產範圍的擴大化與各種要素之間的複雜化,上述簡單的轉換過程,已無法應付各方面的需要,因此生產系統,整體生產系統中,所面臨的問題,已不是單純的生產技術或製造方法,尤其在生產系統中扮演關鍵角色的決策與回饋,更是一種整合性的學問。
這表示企業營運要用更寬廣的視野,來解決各種人際互動與管理運作的複雜問題,於是「生產管理」也逐漸轉變為「生產與作業管理」。
最近10年來,科技與全球化的推展,不斷地提升各產業的附加價值,也使得每個國家服務業的產值迅速提升。
進入資訊時代的末期,高附加價值的產業集中於微笑曲線的兩端,即研發、物流與銷售,這些雖然在生產系統中扮演協助的角色,但在科技及全球化的推波助瀾下,產生高度的附加價值;反而原來的主角──製造,需要太多的人力與標準化,附加價值提升較為有限,成為強勢國家與企業「放棄」的對象。
既然製造業不受青睞,在許多研究領域也有「去生產化」的趨勢,因此,「生產與作業管理」就逐漸變成「作業管理」。
事實上,有成熟的製造業,才會有精實有效的生產系統,進而衍生出高附加價值的服務業,如果沒有製造業,那服務業豈不成為海市蜃樓?. 可以看出新的企業世界,其經濟成長動力已由資訊轉變為生物物質,在組織策略上,也由價值鏈進展到價值網;在外在焦點上也有更大的轉變。 對於未來作業管理的發展趨勢,大致可以歸納如。
利用科技提供針對個別顧客所需的低價訂製產品,過程中不太需要人力介入。新型的製造系統被形容為敏捷而帶有智慧,有代客「量身打造」的能力;它的電腦和機器人能自動接受訂單、決定生產日程、移動零組件、建構產品,甚至自行維修及重新設定其他系統。
未來將有更精巧的軟體不斷被設計出來,每一個皆可藉助電腦提供構想、設計與生產大綱,而成為單人「桌上製造商」,全世界將有太多這種人才讓你挑選與利用,而能創造出更多的附加價值,這也是未來要從供應鏈走向供應網的主要原因。
一種新流程稱為「快速原型」(Rapid prototyping)將結合新的數位機械和新物質,把製造原型的時間減到接近於零,並大量節省成本;再配合平行流程(parallel processing)的發展,所提供的優勢不只是速度而已,如提供一個以上的處理器、提供一個複製的層面,能大量減少單一系統在執行重要任務失靈的影響。
可以想像當上述兩種技術結合的效果,將會使目前的產品與設計,以及流程管理做法,有大幅度的修改。
不久的將來,多功能處理晶片、智慧卡(smart cards)、感應裝置(sensors)、知識機器人、神經網路/模糊邏輯、智慧原料、生物科技與奈米機械(nano and pico machine)的新產品與新科技,將陸續被廣泛的推廣與應用。
新的企業營運觀念與做法導入以後,作業管理所討論的主題,可能又要重新組合,說不定連名稱都要改變,我們就拭目以待吧!. (4) Able to conduct oral and write business reports.

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