畢業論文寫作服務 英國

Start brainstorming session, when you are refreshed and relaxed to produce ingenious, original and creative ideas. 姓 名 宋正邦 ( 課表 & 著作) 職 稱: 助理教授: 學 歷: 美國 南達科他州大學 教育行政 博士. She is telling you what sort of paper will be appropriate. First of all, pay attention to what your professor is saying. L
least(lowest) common multiple 最小公倍數
leg 梯形的兩條不平性的邊;直角三角形的直角邊
length 長度
lengthwise(lengthways) 縱長的
like(similar) terms 同類項
line 直線,線段
line segment/half line 半直線,射線
line graph 線型圖
literal coefficient 字母係數. 大致上可以從以下幾方面著手:

  1. 先擬定一個對自己有濃厚的興趣的題目。既使所擬定的題目,研究範圍太大,其實無所謂,但務必要有濃厚的興趣,因為作者瀏覽群書、蒐集資料、整理分析,到撰寫論文,樣樣都需要興趣配合,方能達臻事半功倍之效,而研究問題的衝刺力才會歷久不衰。

  2. 儘量縮小題目研究範圍,至於把題目縮小到什麼程度,全靠蒐集的資料與個人處理這些資料的能力來做決定。通常學生喜歡從大題著手,但在圖書館閱讀一些前人的文獻之後,發現資料太多不易細讀,才選定某一個問題的某一層面或選擇某種研究的觀點或方法,以逐步縮小題目範圍。因題目小,較易於蒐集資料並可整理詳盡的書目及資料卡。再者,觀念較易集中,精華較易摘取,往往可以深入問題中心,而不流於膚淺,作者才有可能有個人的創見或新發現。

  3. 對前人的類似研究作一徹底的文獻探討,對所要撰寫的題目更進一步的認識,作者必須檢討前人的文獻,其目的在瞭解迄今那些已有圓滿的答案、那些是細微末節的小問題、那些問題太空泛、目前不適合研究、那些問題仍然眾說紛紜等,如遇有懷疑的問題,當然應予深究。同時作者藉此觸類旁通,發現一些靈感並瞭解所擬定的題目是否已有前人做過類似的研究,也可瞭解自己的興趣到底有多大。

  4. 多問問題。在探討已往的相關文獻時,不妨多問問題,如言心哲(1938:11)所問的:「這個問題有無再加研究的必要?有無重新研究的可能?這個問題的知識,是否仍有缺陷,尚待補充?我們若拿來再作的時候,又有多大的益處?」當然我們可以再問前人所研究的理論、方法、過程是否能加以修正、充實、擴充、甚至取代?在探討的過程中,我們的概念與所思考的問題都會隨著修正,所擬定一般性的題目也隨之縮小成特殊性的題目,一直到找到合適的研究題目為止。此即孔子所謂的「溫故而知新」。

  5. 提出假設(hypothesis),就是對所研究的問題提供可能有創意的答案,所謂「答案」應包含作者需要證明的觀點和意見。以供後學者從事後續研究之參考,以便測定該假設是否合理健全。最基本的理由就是一篇有價值的論文,並非拾人牙慧,綜合已往的相關文獻作摘要式的概述,而無新的創意。

筆者(1991)利用擴充主題的連鎖(extended topic chain),為我國學生學英文而設計出一套英文段落發展的模式為例,來說明論文寫作的歷程。筆者在美留學期間,即對布拉格學派(Prague School)所謂的交談功能的「詞序原則」(word order principle in terms of communication)深感濃厚的興趣。返國服務後,研讀曹逢甫(1979)的論文〈中英文的句子—某些基本語法差異的探討〉,文中提出了「主題連鎖」的概念,也就是說中文句子是由一個或數個評論子句(他建議最好只限於四個)組成,前面冠以一個可以貫穿全部子句的主題。請看他給的例句,注意(a)的分析:

    這棵樹花小葉子大很難看

    Comment

    (a) topic C1 C2 C3

    (b) topic transition focus

    rheme

    (c) 起 承 轉 合

(a)是依據主題連鎖分析:所談論的主題是「這棵樹」,其後緊接著三個評論的子句。而(b)的分析是依據交談功能的「詞序原則」,也就是人在談話時,總是先提主題,然後承接主題,最後才提及句子的訊息焦點。換言之,句子的進展是依「主題」、「承接」、「焦點」的秩序而展開的。這兩種不同的分析,事實上頗有異曲同工之處。不過這時筆者的研究興趣與範圍濃縮到這些分析對國人學習英文閱讀或寫作有無啟示作用?同時為深入研究,積極蒐集布拉格學派研究句子功能分佈觀(Functional Sentence Perspective theory)主要作者如Mathesius,Firbas,Danes和曹逢甫(1979,1981,1983,1987)的相關文獻,此外也參閱英語教學專家有關閱讀與寫作的文獻,其中引起筆者最大興趣的是Kaplan(1966)用圖表方式說明英語、閃族語、東方語、羅曼斯語及俄語的段落發展方式。但在研讀這些辛苦蒐集得來的資料時,不少問題湧上心頭,如我國傳統文章作法四步驟:「起」(introduction to a topic)、「承」(elucidation of the topic)、「轉」(transition to another viewpoint)、「合」(conclusion or summing up)不是也可以分析嗎?如(c)句,一開始就談到主題「這棵樹」,這是「起」的部分;接著說明這棵樹花很小,這是「承」的部分(=C1);現從樹的花移轉到樹的葉,這是「轉」的部分(=C2),最後結論:這棵樹很難看,這是句子的焦點,也就是「合」的部分(=C3),由此觀之,文章作法的四步驟可以涵蓋「詞序原則」或「主題連鎖」在分析句子時所遵循的原則。因此我們有理由可以把「詞序原則」或「主題連鎖」的概念,從以句子為單位的分析,擴充應用到以段為單位的英語閱讀或寫作上。最後提出下面的擴充主題串其中→表有密切關聯性,>表選擇性,可有可無. You will want to have certain terms in hand so that you can explain what Hitchcock is doing in key moments. New York: Holt, Rinehart and winston. The credit crisis also covers several college class areas – economics, sociology and finance courses.

In a computer architecture paper, this means that it should in most cases include the following sections. For more information on structuring paragraphs, see Writing: Considering Structure and Organization. You will want to leave the reader with something to think about, but you will want to avoid preaching. An abstract must be a fully self-contained, capsule description of the paper. In a business context, an “executive summary” is often the only piece of a report read by the people who matter; and it should be similar in content if not tone to a journal paper abstract. When you try, you risk having your analysis compared to your professor’s. MLA handbook for writers of research papers. Thus, when it comes to term paper writing, term papers should be based upon theory and not so much on practical knowledge. As a college student, you will be engaged in activities that scholars have been engaged in for centuries: you will read about, think about, argue about, and write about great ideas. You will want to sum up, but you will want to do more than say what you have already said. Do you want to list each opposing argument and rebut them one by one. Be prepared and take a look at the top 5 term paper topics on the economic crisis in America. In any case, when you are deciding on a rhetorical stance, choose one that allows you to be sincere. Because every thesis presents an arguable point, you as a writer are obligated to acknowledge in your paper the other side(s) of an argument. You can use them as your assistance in creating your paper. Consider once again the Hitchcock film.

Understand, however, that “adding something of your own” is not an invitation simply to bring your own personal associations, reactions, or experiences to the reading of a text. Taking America’s financial crisis and looking at in light of a global financial crisis is the most popular economics topic for term papers today. Should it summarize one of the theories of self. Do you have personal issues or experiences that lead you to be impatient with certain claims. At this juncture, you have two options: talk to the professor and see what her expectations are, or figure out this matter for yourself. (一)觀察(observe)所蒐集之語料; (二)從該語料的結構猜測(guess)其語言現象; (三)然後大膽構思(formulate)一些假設性的規律來解釋這個現象; (註六) 由此觀之,文抄公想成為妙手神偷,應效法蜜蜂釀蜜的方法,採攝百家之言,擇善而從,加上一番創造的功夫,持之以恆,才有可能成為學者。如何採攝百家之言呢?簡言之,廣博蒐集研究和參考資料,細微觀察,然後予以歸納、分析、批判,是做任何研究得基本功夫。有了此功夫,撰寫論文時,才能旁徵博引。如果只是隨興所至,東摸西摸,不深入瞭解,沒有基本功夫,因所知有限,必致陷於困窮,將來作研究不易有成就。因為篇幅的限制,以下論述的重點將限於語言學。 (一)資料的蒐集 資料是論文的靈魂,但在浩瀚的研究和參考資料中,究竟該到何處去尋找所需要的「滄海一粟」的資料呢?怎麼找法?找到後又該如何鑑定?以下我們就分這三大類加以討論。 甲、資料的寶庫:圖書館與電子資料庫 資料的蒐集應求其廣博確實,圖書館與電子資料庫,無疑地是資料來源最豐富的地方。至於如何有效利用圖書館與電子資料庫,這方面出版論文與書籍不算少(註七),在此毋庸贅敘。 乙、資料的來源 通常蒐集資料之途徑不外以下列幾種: (一)向各行各業的學者專家請教。 (二)為調查某一地區之語言,口語語料的蒐集,可從提供資料的講本地話的人(informant)或從日常生活的談話裡尋找。書面語的語料可從報章、雜誌、小說、詩歌、戲劇等印刷物上取得,甚至也可來自研究者憑自己的語感造出來的句子。 (三)訪問、通訊與問卷得來的資料。 (四)實驗、測量或統計得來的資料。 (五)閱讀期刊、專門索引、百科全書、學報、博、碩論文、書評、手冊、參考書目、辭典、報紙及報紙論文索引等(註八)。 丙、資料的鑑定 資料之蒐集應務求「廣」、「博」以及「精」。將前人在此專業範圍內的研究成果和有關的研究文獻,應盡可能蒐集齊全,但並非拾人牙慧,那麼對蒐集得來的資料,如何去蕪存菁?如何鑑定是否有可供利用的價值呢?依據Slade, Campbell和Ballou (1994:15-16)的說法,通常可從四原則來過濾: 甲、區別原始資料(primary sources)和第二手資料(secondary sources) 原始資料通常包括原作者的出版作品之原始手稿、日記、信函、訪問談話的原始筆錄、實驗報告等。第二手資料概括有百科全書、參考書籍、專門報導、評論或專家學者對某一原始作品所作之分析、評論、詮釋等。此外,宋楚渝(1983:63-64)提醒我們 在評價這兩種資料時,我們必須用判斷力來分辨其間的特性與可信性。(甲)就原始資料來說,我們必須判斷資料本身的可信程度如何?從材料中歸納出對報告有幫助的結論。(乙)就第二手資料而論,我們必須決定原作者本人是否值得信賴,並且要辨別書中何者為事實,何者是原作者自己引申的見解。 譬如,在語法論文中,若要引述語言學大師杭士基的「管轄約束理論」(GB theory),應採用原始資料。對杭氏理論的補充、評論、詮釋之類的二手資料,市面上汗牛充棟,僅供參考而已。 乙、客觀性(Objectivity of the source) 檢視論文之原作者討論某一問題之觀點是否客觀公正. Your decisions will determine how you structure your paper. Now that the use of on-line publication databases is prevalent, writing a really good abstract has become even more important than it was a decade ago. For example: “The efficiency of Basic Health Care for Cats”. Finding assistance is not easy; sometimes people who assist us not really understand what term paper writing is. You will want to have certain terms in hand so that you can explain what Hitchcock is doing in key moments. Your position on a topic does not by itself determine your rhetorical stance. ”

註三:關於語言研究所採用的歸納法(inductive method),參閱Cook(1967:3)的說明,如下圖:

Language Competence

Discovery process 2. The number 5 term paper topic on the economy focuses on the credit crisis of the Fall of 2008.

You can also summarize what you know about the film in context. Undisputedly, an Education Degree is one of the most sought after degrees in our nation. New York: Modern Language Association of America. Abstracts have always served the function of “selling” your work. I
identical 相等的;�等的
*illumination 照明度
improper fraction 假分數
included angle(side) 夾角(邊)
indefinitely 無限定地
independent 無關地,獨立地
independent variables 引數
inequality 不等式;不相等
in excess of 超過
infinite decimal 無窮小數,同non-terminating decimal
infinite sequence 無窮數列
inscribed angle 圓周角,同弧所對圓心角的尺寸是圓周角的二倍
inside dimension 內部尺寸
installment 分期付款中每一期所付的款項
integer 整數
integer part 代分數的整數部分,代分數的分數部分是fractional part
*intensity 強度
intercept 截距;截取eg intercepted arc 截弧
interest 利息
interior angle 內角
in terms of 用來表示
intersect 直線相交,point of inetrsection交點
interval 間隔,區間
in turn 依次,輪流
invert a fraction 求一個分數的倒數
irrational number 無理數. If you dismissed part of a text as boring or unimportant, why did you do so. These are determined by how marketable the degree is in the job world today. F
face 立體的面
factor 因數;將分解因數
factorable 可進行因式分解的
factorial 階乘;因數的,階乘的
figure 圖形
*finish line 終點線
fold 對折
footcandle (物理)英尺燭光(照度單位)
formula 公式,配方
fraction 分數
from subtract 從減去. No matter what class it is, a term paper topic should be relevant to today’s world in order to truly “Wow” your professor. They will make sure that you will be satisfied on what they have been done for you. Or, to put it another way, you will want to consider what is known about a subject and then to determine what you think about it. Your decisions will determine how you structure your paper.

Integrate the global financial crisis into your term paper on history, sociology, anthropology or any other course and your professor will be impressed at your ability to look at his/her class from a more broad world view. You may have some observations that at first don’t seem to gel. In short, then, good academic writing follows the rules of good writing. But what about the matter of finding an appropriate academic tone and style. Even Brad DeLong, who has been relatively sympathetic to the administration here, is disturbed by the idea that regulators are negotiating with the banks about the test results. In other words, it’s important to determine not only what you think about a topic, but also what your audience is likely to think. Use the following as a checklist for your next abstract:.

014sep3-2.jpg

Even when your paper is not a research paper you will be expected to introduce your argument as if into a larger conversation. Start brainstorming session, when you are refreshed and relaxed to produce ingenious, original and creative ideas. For many people, the problem has some negative meaning. This topic can be integrated into political science, government, history, sociology and American studies term papers. This article describes how to write a good computer architecture abstract for both conference and journal papers. When you write an academic paper, you must first try to find a topic or a question that is relevant and appropriate. You will want to sum up, but you will want to do more than say what you have already said. Thus, when it comes to term paper writing, term papers should be based upon theory and not so much on practical knowledge. Is your aim to be controversial. You must also add something of your own to the conversation. Does this prioritizing reflect some bias or preconception on your part.

Sent

V A I O

NP NP NP

break John hammer window

事實上,費爾摩的語意深層結構在本質上與語言的述詞邏輯結構(註九)非常類似,見下圖:

prop

Pred Arg Arg Arg

break John hammer window

他把邏輯術語如命題(proposition)、述詞(predicate)、論元(argument)分別換成句子(sentence)、動詞(verb)、名詞組(NP)等語法上的術語,另加格位的概念,即名詞組都賦有一定的格,就創立了前人所不知的格變語法,為當時的語言研究提供了另一種分析的途徑。

像蜜蜂釀蜜似的,杭士基與費爾摩攝取百家之言,通古博今,加上一番創造的功夫,終能站在從事同類研究的前輩肩膀上,若不懷疑結構學派的理論,那會有杭士基的衍生變換學派;同理,若不是對杭士基抽像的深層結構產生懷疑,那會有費爾摩的格變語法(註十)。他們匠心獨運所得之結晶共同點:即是善於引用所蒐集之資料並且融匯貫通,化前人的心血為己有,都成為武俠小說中的妙手神偷。

由此觀之,要有獨特的創見,先從懷疑與好奇開始。在構思研報或論文的某些主要論點後,就應儘量蒐集已往的相關文獻。由於知識無國界,應隨時注意國內外論文圖書與期刊出版的情形。此外,為避免重蹈前人失敗的覆轍,或避免重覆前人已有的努力,應對前人文獻略作評論(Literature review),找出他們研究上的盲點,這樣對前人已有的知識才有充分的瞭解並妥切加以吸收,去蕪存菁,進行深究和補強,才能求取新的知識,再憑自己的研究、考證、旁徵博引才有可能寫成一篇具有創見或新發現的論文。


四、論文寫作:小題大作

從事論文寫作,最困難的事是什麼.

Let’s first consider your relationship to your topic. A short paper written in response to a viewing of Alfred Hitchcock’s Rear Window, for example, may not require you to be familiar with Hitchcock’s other works. Do you really want that to happen. Taking America’s financial crisis and looking at in light of a global financial crisis is the most popular economics topic for term papers today. Because your thesis is probably the single most important sentence in your paper, you will want to read more about it in Developing Your Thesis. Make your thesis statement grounded in one educational theory and then expand on that theory by how it applies to your topic. Watching Hitchcock’s film, you are likely to have found yourself feeling anxious, caught up in the film’s suspense. The laboratory in South Korea, BioArts, includes a scientist that lost his research professorship at Seoul University in 2004, after fraudulently claiming he’d cloned human embryos and stem cells. 地址:32023 桃園市中壢區中北路200號 | 電話:(03)265-6601~3 | 傳真:(03)265-6630
200, Chung Pei Rd. In order to make sure that your stance on a topic is appropriately analytical, you might want to ask yourself some questions. They will make sure that you will be satisfied on what they have been done for you. How do they contribute to Hitchcock’s work as a whole. Returning to the example of Hitchcock’s film, you might make a plot summary, a summary of its themes, a summary of its editing, and so on. In other words, is your professor looking for information or argument. Education majors face a large amount of theoretical material in their classes. The 2nd term paper topic that has achieved recent popularity in light of the economic crisis is the topic of ethical business practices. Should it place these theories into some historical context.

New York: Modern Language Association of America. Journal of National Chengchi University, 62:285- 309. Unfortunately, in the next few years, many college courses will examine the topic of the desperate state of the United States’ economy. O
obtuse angle 鈍角,大於90度而小於180度的角
obtuse triangle 鈍角三角形
octagon 八邊形
odd integer 奇數
odds 事物發生的可能性,機會
of one dimension 線性的
on the average 平均
operation 運算
order 順序,訂單
ordinate 縱坐標
origin 原點,origin of coordinates 座標原點
original equation 原方程
overlap 部分重疊,部分搭交. 論文寫作最重要的是言之成理,要言之成理,唯一祕訣是多讀多看多研究。而研究就是發掘問題到解決問題的一連串過程,有點像挖煤礦一樣,不斷去掘,一直挖到煤為止。因此,做研究,要下苦功,天賦需苦功為伴,無捷徑可循。功夫足了,就像珠寶看多了,自然就會鑑定,什麼書有料沒料,一看就知到。這種發現可疑之處,發掘問題、蒐集資料、比較鑑定、知所取捨是做研究的基本功夫,擁有這些功夫,從事論文寫作時,自然就會旁徵博引、小題大作,遠離操抄襲之路,步上創作之康莊大道。無疑地,時代的巨輪,由於我們前人心血努力的研究創作而得以向前邁進。最後引用高教司司長余玉照所提出「邁向卓越人生五多法」中的一多,作為本文的結語:

    「多研究:每一個行業或每一個學術領域都有無限發展的空間,唯有鍥而不捨地在研究的路上付出心血,使能享有不斷發展的希望。」(註十一)


附註

註一:前三點原因是宋楚瑜(1983:ix)所提出的。

註二:教育部高教司余玉照司長,在一九九六年第四屆通識教師研討會中,發言指出「University」當中十個字母可能代表十個重要理念。原文如下:”University” may stand for “universally nurturing intellect and virtue with enthusiasm and reason for science, idealism, truth and yourself. Remember: professors are human beings, capable of boredom, laughter, irritation, and awe. It may not even require you to have mastered the terms important to film criticism – though clearly any knowledge you bring to the film might help you to make a thoughtful response to it. Of course, being a scholar requires that you read, think, argue, and write in certain ways. MLA handbook for writers of research papers. When you try, you risk having your analysis compared to your professor’s. When you write a paper, you take a stand on a topic. You evaluate a text the moment you encounter it, and – if you aren’t lazy – you continue to evaluate and to re-evaluate as you go along. Monograph series on languages and linguistics, ed. What in the text is leading you to respond a certain way. In many cases, however, the professor won’t provide you with a prompt. Everything that linguists have always wanted to know about logic but were ashamed to ask.

畢業論文寫作服務 英國 更多信息

The tone of an academic paper, then, must be inviting to the reader, even while it maintains an appropriate academic style. After all, it’s not enough to summarize in a paper what is already known and talked about. In the college classroom, the audience is usually the professor or your classmates – although occasionally your professor will instruct you to write for a more particular or more general audience. Is your aim to be controversial. 姓 名 宋正邦 ( 課表 & 著作) 職 稱: 助理教授: 學 歷: 美國 南達科他州大學 教育行政 博士. You can also summarize what you know about the film in context. ~of parallel lines
trapezoid 梯形
triangle 三角形
trinomial 三項式
triple 三倍的. The topic sentence is more flexible than the thesis in that it can more readily appear in different places within the paragraph.

Composing any of term paper can be hard for some people. By Emmon Bach and Robet Harms, 1-88. Probably you were taught in high school that every paper must have a declared thesis, and that this sentence should appear at the end of the introduction. If you aren’t yet confident about a topic, and you have more questions than answers, you might want to take an inquisitive stance. Academic writing is writing done by scholars for other scholars. “Place” your argument for your reader by naming the text, the author, the issues it raises, and your take on these issues. 中華民國人文類學門「研究方法與論文寫作」課程規畫研討會論文集

 

談如何旁徵博引、小題大作從事研究論文之寫作

 

政大 莫建清


 

一、前言

針對某一特定的問題,撰寫研究報告與論文是訓練大學生獨立思考與判斷或評估學習成就的最佳方式之一,但一般大學生視為畏途,究其原因有四:

(一)由於學生對撰寫研究報告的性質與技巧不甚瞭解;
(二)往往缺乏良好的指導,以致一般學生多視撰寫研究報告為苦事; (三)學生在學期間,大都課業繁重,除閱讀指定教科書與應付考試外,幾無暇執筆為文(註一); (四)缺乏系統教導學生利用圖書館蒐集資料,以致對館中參考書、期刊、目錄卡片、電子資料庫與電腦檢索等之使用,不甚瞭解,無法有效從浩如煙海的資訊中,有系統的整理與分析對自己有用的資料。
(一)觀察(observe)所蒐集之語料; (二)從該語料的結構猜測(guess)其語言現象; (三)然後大膽構思(formulate)一些假設性的規律來解釋這個現象; (註六) 由此觀之,文抄公想成為妙手神偷,應效法蜜蜂釀蜜的方法,採攝百家之言,擇善而從,加上一番創造的功夫,持之以恆,才有可能成為學者。如何採攝百家之言呢?簡言之,廣博蒐集研究和參考資料,細微觀察,然後予以歸納、分析、批判,是做任何研究得基本功夫。有了此功夫,撰寫論文時,才能旁徵博引。如果只是隨興所至,東摸西摸,不深入瞭解,沒有基本功夫,因所知有限,必致陷於困窮,將來作研究不易有成就。因為篇幅的限制,以下論述的重點將限於語言學。 (一)資料的蒐集 資料是論文的靈魂,但在浩瀚的研究和參考資料中,究竟該到何處去尋找所需要的「滄海一粟」的資料呢?怎麼找法?找到後又該如何鑑定?以下我們就分這三大類加以討論。 甲、資料的寶庫:圖書館與電子資料庫 資料的蒐集應求其廣博確實,圖書館與電子資料庫,無疑地是資料來源最豐富的地方。至於如何有效利用圖書館與電子資料庫,這方面出版論文與書籍不算少(註七),在此毋庸贅敘。 乙、資料的來源 通常蒐集資料之途徑不外以下列幾種: (一)向各行各業的學者專家請教。 (二)為調查某一地區之語言,口語語料的蒐集,可從提供資料的講本地話的人(informant)或從日常生活的談話裡尋找。書面語的語料可從報章、雜誌、小說、詩歌、戲劇等印刷物上取得,甚至也可來自研究者憑自己的語感造出來的句子。 (三)訪問、通訊與問卷得來的資料。 (四)實驗、測量或統計得來的資料。 (五)閱讀期刊、專門索引、百科全書、學報、博、碩論文、書評、手冊、參考書目、辭典、報紙及報紙論文索引等(註八)。 丙、資料的鑑定 資料之蒐集應務求「廣」、「博」以及「精」。將前人在此專業範圍內的研究成果和有關的研究文獻,應盡可能蒐集齊全,但並非拾人牙慧,那麼對蒐集得來的資料,如何去蕪存菁?如何鑑定是否有可供利用的價值呢?依據Slade, Campbell和Ballou (1994:15-16)的說法,通常可從四原則來過濾: 甲、區別原始資料(primary sources)和第二手資料(secondary sources) 原始資料通常包括原作者的出版作品之原始手稿、日記、信函、訪問談話的原始筆錄、實驗報告等。第二手資料概括有百科全書、參考書籍、專門報導、評論或專家學者對某一原始作品所作之分析、評論、詮釋等。此外,宋楚渝(1983:63-64)提醒我們 在評價這兩種資料時,我們必須用判斷力來分辨其間的特性與可信性。(甲)就原始資料來說,我們必須判斷資料本身的可信程度如何?從材料中歸納出對報告有幫助的結論。(乙)就第二手資料而論,我們必須決定原作者本人是否值得信賴,並且要辨別書中何者為事實,何者是原作者自己引申的見解。 譬如,在語法論文中,若要引述語言學大師杭士基的「管轄約束理論」(GB theory),應採用原始資料。對杭氏理論的補充、評論、詮釋之類的二手資料,市面上汗牛充棟,僅供參考而已。 乙、客觀性(Objectivity of the source) 檢視論文之原作者討論某一問題之觀點是否客觀公正.

In the college classroom, the audience is usually the professor or your classmates – although occasionally your professor will instruct you to write for a more particular or more general audience. 1 简介; 2 服务范围; 3 英国留学论文写作注意事项. P
parallel lines 平行線
parallelogram 平行四邊形
penny 分
pentagon 五邊形
percent 百分號
percent of interest 利率,同rate of interest
percent increase 增加的百分率
percent decrease 減少的百分率
perfect square(cube) 完全平方(立方),e. If the student didn’t care to write the paper, the professor probably won’t care to read it. But what about the matter of finding an appropriate academic tone and style. Watching Hitchcock’s film, you are likely to have found yourself feeling anxious, caught up in the film’s suspense. Org , we constantly stress how important it is that your term paper topic be related to what is going on in the world today. It’s always a good idea to talk with the professor. 大致上可以從以下幾方面著手:

  1. 先擬定一個對自己有濃厚的興趣的題目。既使所擬定的題目,研究範圍太大,其實無所謂,但務必要有濃厚的興趣,因為作者瀏覽群書、蒐集資料、整理分析,到撰寫論文,樣樣都需要興趣配合,方能達臻事半功倍之效,而研究問題的衝刺力才會歷久不衰。

  2. 儘量縮小題目研究範圍,至於把題目縮小到什麼程度,全靠蒐集的資料與個人處理這些資料的能力來做決定。通常學生喜歡從大題著手,但在圖書館閱讀一些前人的文獻之後,發現資料太多不易細讀,才選定某一個問題的某一層面或選擇某種研究的觀點或方法,以逐步縮小題目範圍。因題目小,較易於蒐集資料並可整理詳盡的書目及資料卡。再者,觀念較易集中,精華較易摘取,往往可以深入問題中心,而不流於膚淺,作者才有可能有個人的創見或新發現。

  3. 對前人的類似研究作一徹底的文獻探討,對所要撰寫的題目更進一步的認識,作者必須檢討前人的文獻,其目的在瞭解迄今那些已有圓滿的答案、那些是細微末節的小問題、那些問題太空泛、目前不適合研究、那些問題仍然眾說紛紜等,如遇有懷疑的問題,當然應予深究。同時作者藉此觸類旁通,發現一些靈感並瞭解所擬定的題目是否已有前人做過類似的研究,也可瞭解自己的興趣到底有多大。

  4. 多問問題。在探討已往的相關文獻時,不妨多問問題,如言心哲(1938:11)所問的:「這個問題有無再加研究的必要?有無重新研究的可能?這個問題的知識,是否仍有缺陷,尚待補充?我們若拿來再作的時候,又有多大的益處?」當然我們可以再問前人所研究的理論、方法、過程是否能加以修正、充實、擴充、甚至取代?在探討的過程中,我們的概念與所思考的問題都會隨著修正,所擬定一般性的題目也隨之縮小成特殊性的題目,一直到找到合適的研究題目為止。此即孔子所謂的「溫故而知新」。

  5. 提出假設(hypothesis),就是對所研究的問題提供可能有創意的答案,所謂「答案」應包含作者需要證明的觀點和意見。以供後學者從事後續研究之參考,以便測定該假設是否合理健全。最基本的理由就是一篇有價值的論文,並非拾人牙慧,綜合已往的相關文獻作摘要式的概述,而無新的創意。

筆者(1991)利用擴充主題的連鎖(extended topic chain),為我國學生學英文而設計出一套英文段落發展的模式為例,來說明論文寫作的歷程。筆者在美留學期間,即對布拉格學派(Prague School)所謂的交談功能的「詞序原則」(word order principle in terms of communication)深感濃厚的興趣。返國服務後,研讀曹逢甫(1979)的論文〈中英文的句子—某些基本語法差異的探討〉,文中提出了「主題連鎖」的概念,也就是說中文句子是由一個或數個評論子句(他建議最好只限於四個)組成,前面冠以一個可以貫穿全部子句的主題。請看他給的例句,注意(a)的分析:

    這棵樹花小葉子大很難看

    Comment

    (a) topic C1 C2 C3

    (b) topic transition focus

    rheme

    (c) 起 承 轉 合

(a)是依據主題連鎖分析:所談論的主題是「這棵樹」,其後緊接著三個評論的子句。而(b)的分析是依據交談功能的「詞序原則」,也就是人在談話時,總是先提主題,然後承接主題,最後才提及句子的訊息焦點。換言之,句子的進展是依「主題」、「承接」、「焦點」的秩序而展開的。這兩種不同的分析,事實上頗有異曲同工之處。不過這時筆者的研究興趣與範圍濃縮到這些分析對國人學習英文閱讀或寫作有無啟示作用?同時為深入研究,積極蒐集布拉格學派研究句子功能分佈觀(Functional Sentence Perspective theory)主要作者如Mathesius,Firbas,Danes和曹逢甫(1979,1981,1983,1987)的相關文獻,此外也參閱英語教學專家有關閱讀與寫作的文獻,其中引起筆者最大興趣的是Kaplan(1966)用圖表方式說明英語、閃族語、東方語、羅曼斯語及俄語的段落發展方式。但在研讀這些辛苦蒐集得來的資料時,不少問題湧上心頭,如我國傳統文章作法四步驟:「起」(introduction to a topic)、「承」(elucidation of the topic)、「轉」(transition to another viewpoint)、「合」(conclusion or summing up)不是也可以分析嗎?如(c)句,一開始就談到主題「這棵樹」,這是「起」的部分;接著說明這棵樹花很小,這是「承」的部分(=C1);現從樹的花移轉到樹的葉,這是「轉」的部分(=C2),最後結論:這棵樹很難看,這是句子的焦點,也就是「合」的部分(=C3),由此觀之,文章作法的四步驟可以涵蓋「詞序原則」或「主題連鎖」在分析句子時所遵循的原則。因此我們有理由可以把「詞序原則」或「主題連鎖」的概念,從以句子為單位的分析,擴充應用到以段為單位的英語閱讀或寫作上。最後提出下面的擴充主題串其中→表有密切關聯性,>表選擇性,可有可無. In the process of really thinking about your topic, your aim is to come up with a fresh observation. You will want to sum up, but you will want to do more than say what you have already said. You must also consider your reader. Or you may have read various critical perspectives on the film, all of them in disagreement with one another. Unfortunately, in the next few years, many college courses will examine the topic of the desperate state of the United States’ economy. 中華民國人文類學門「研究方法與論文寫作」課程規畫研討會論文集

 

談如何旁徵博引、小題大作從事研究論文之寫作

 

政大 莫建清


 

一、前言

針對某一特定的問題,撰寫研究報告與論文是訓練大學生獨立思考與判斷或評估學習成就的最佳方式之一,但一般大學生視為畏途,究其原因有四:

(一)由於學生對撰寫研究報告的性質與技巧不甚瞭解;
(二)往往缺乏良好的指導,以致一般學生多視撰寫研究報告為苦事; (三)學生在學期間,大都課業繁重,除閱讀指定教科書與應付考試外,幾無暇執筆為文(註一); (四)缺乏系統教導學生利用圖書館蒐集資料,以致對館中參考書、期刊、目錄卡片、電子資料庫與電腦檢索等之使用,不甚瞭解,無法有效從浩如煙海的資訊中,有系統的整理與分析對自己有用的資料。
(一)觀察(observe)所蒐集之語料; (二)從該語料的結構猜測(guess)其語言現象; (三)然後大膽構思(formulate)一些假設性的規律來解釋這個現象; (註六) 由此觀之,文抄公想成為妙手神偷,應效法蜜蜂釀蜜的方法,採攝百家之言,擇善而從,加上一番創造的功夫,持之以恆,才有可能成為學者。如何採攝百家之言呢?簡言之,廣博蒐集研究和參考資料,細微觀察,然後予以歸納、分析、批判,是做任何研究得基本功夫。有了此功夫,撰寫論文時,才能旁徵博引。如果只是隨興所至,東摸西摸,不深入瞭解,沒有基本功夫,因所知有限,必致陷於困窮,將來作研究不易有成就。因為篇幅的限制,以下論述的重點將限於語言學。 (一)資料的蒐集 資料是論文的靈魂,但在浩瀚的研究和參考資料中,究竟該到何處去尋找所需要的「滄海一粟」的資料呢?怎麼找法?找到後又該如何鑑定?以下我們就分這三大類加以討論。 甲、資料的寶庫:圖書館與電子資料庫 資料的蒐集應求其廣博確實,圖書館與電子資料庫,無疑地是資料來源最豐富的地方。至於如何有效利用圖書館與電子資料庫,這方面出版論文與書籍不算少(註七),在此毋庸贅敘。 乙、資料的來源 通常蒐集資料之途徑不外以下列幾種: (一)向各行各業的學者專家請教。 (二)為調查某一地區之語言,口語語料的蒐集,可從提供資料的講本地話的人(informant)或從日常生活的談話裡尋找。書面語的語料可從報章、雜誌、小說、詩歌、戲劇等印刷物上取得,甚至也可來自研究者憑自己的語感造出來的句子。 (三)訪問、通訊與問卷得來的資料。 (四)實驗、測量或統計得來的資料。 (五)閱讀期刊、專門索引、百科全書、學報、博、碩論文、書評、手冊、參考書目、辭典、報紙及報紙論文索引等(註八)。 丙、資料的鑑定 資料之蒐集應務求「廣」、「博」以及「精」。將前人在此專業範圍內的研究成果和有關的研究文獻,應盡可能蒐集齊全,但並非拾人牙慧,那麼對蒐集得來的資料,如何去蕪存菁?如何鑑定是否有可供利用的價值呢?依據Slade, Campbell和Ballou (1994:15-16)的說法,通常可從四原則來過濾: 甲、區別原始資料(primary sources)和第二手資料(secondary sources) 原始資料通常包括原作者的出版作品之原始手稿、日記、信函、訪問談話的原始筆錄、實驗報告等。第二手資料概括有百科全書、參考書籍、專門報導、評論或專家學者對某一原始作品所作之分析、評論、詮釋等。此外,宋楚渝(1983:63-64)提醒我們 在評價這兩種資料時,我們必須用判斷力來分辨其間的特性與可信性。(甲)就原始資料來說,我們必須判斷資料本身的可信程度如何?從材料中歸納出對報告有幫助的結論。(乙)就第二手資料而論,我們必須決定原作者本人是否值得信賴,並且要辨別書中何者為事實,何者是原作者自己引申的見解。 譬如,在語法論文中,若要引述語言學大師杭士基的「管轄約束理論」(GB theory),應採用原始資料。對杭氏理論的補充、評論、詮釋之類的二手資料,市面上汗牛充棟,僅供參考而已。 乙、客觀性(Objectivity of the source) 檢視論文之原作者討論某一問題之觀點是否客觀公正. Writing done by scholars for scholars.

You will want to sum up, but you will want to do more than say what you have already said. Remember that academic writing must be more than personal response. What if you are of two minds on a subject. A short paper written in response to a viewing of Alfred Hitchcock’s Rear Window, for example, may not require you to be familiar with Hitchcock’s other works. Despite the fact that an abstract is quite brief, it must do almost as much work as the multi-page paper that follows it. Writers should follow a checklist consisting of: motivation, problem statement, approach, results, and conclusions. Professors want students to write clearly and intelligently on matters that they, the students, care about. Academic writing is writing done by scholars for other scholars.

1 简介; 2 服务范围; 3 英国留学论文写作注意事项. Finding assistance is not easy; sometimes people who assist us not really understand what term paper writing is. You will want to be familiar with Hitchcock’s other films so that you can understand what themes are important to him and his work. It may not even require you to have mastered the terms important to film criticism – though clearly any knowledge you bring to the film might help you to make a thoughtful response to it. In the college classroom, the audience is usually the professor or your classmates – although occasionally your professor will instruct you to write for a more particular or more general audience. Very close to the number 5 topic is the 4th term paper topic of the seizure of financial institutions by the federal government, namely the nation’s largest savings and loan and the nation’s largest insurance company. Undisputedly, an Education Degree is one of the most sought after degrees in our nation. Moreover, it is impossible for you to replicate the “ideal paper” that exists in your professor’s head. Film critics have written much about Hitchcock, his films, and their genre. They might tell you to order your information chronologically or spatially, depending on whether you are writing a paper for a history class or a course in art history. However, as an education major, you first must get that illusive degree and many education majors get stuck on the difficulty of some aspects of course material. Different writing assignments require different degrees of knowing. But before you do, consider some of the following tips, designed to make the process of writing an academic paper go more smoothly:. Still, if you want to be safe, your paper will have a declared thesis and it will appear where the reader expects it to appear: at the end of the introduction.

更多信息 畢業論文寫作服務 英國:

In the process of analysis, you find things that you might say. You must also add something of your own to the conversation. Revolutions per min每分鐘轉速
rhombus 菱形
right 直的
root 方根;方程的根
round 四捨五入
row:column 行. Finally, don’t write simply to please your professor. She will certainly be giving you a context into which you can place your questions and observations. MLA handbook for writers of research papers. If, for example, you are an authority on a subject and you are writing to readers who know little or nothing about it, then you’ll want to take an informative stance. In other words, you might write a summary of the difficulties Hitchcock experienced in the film’s production, or you might write a summary of how this particular movie complements or challenges other films in the Hitchcock canon.

In any case, when you are deciding on a rhetorical stance, choose one that allows you to be sincere. You determine whether you are going to view this topic through a particular perspective (feminist, for example), or whether you are going to make a more general response. Just a suggestion, you have to follow the each step that they write, because usually your paper will be presented by you then. This topic can be integrated into political science, government, history, sociology and American studies term papers. Moreover, it is impossible for you to replicate the “ideal paper” that exists in your professor’s head. In the process of analysis, you find things that you might say. Though some professors find it flattering to discover that all of their students share their positions on a subject, most of us are hoping that your argument will engage us by telling us something new about your topic – even if that “something new” is simply a fresh emphasis on a minor detail.

You must also consider your reader. To analyze Hitchcock’s film, you may want to break the film down by examining particular scenes, point of view, camera movements, and so on. A wealthy couple in Florida have paid 0,000 for what a South Korean laboratory claims is the world’s first commercially cloned dog. You will want to leave the reader with something to think about, but you will want to avoid preaching. Some concepts and consequences of the theory of government and binding. Tw
COPYRIGHT@2012 CYCU Department of Applied Linguistics and Language Studies. You also can ask help if you are conducting to create dissertation writing. It can’t assume (or attempt to provoke) the reader into flipping through looking for an explanation of what is meant by some vague statement.

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When you evaluate for an academic purpose, it is important to be able to clearly articulate and to support your own personal response. Do you want to list each opposing argument and rebut them one by one. N
natural number 自然數
negative number 負數
negligible 可忽略不計的
n-gon n-邊形
nickel 五分
nonadjacent 不相鄰的
nonagon 九邊形
nonzero 非零;非零的
not necessarily distinct不必然不同的
number 數,數位
number line 數軸,規定了原點,正方向和單位長度的直線,
數軸上的點和實數一一對應
numerator 分數的分子
numerical coefficient 數位係數. You can use them as your assistance in creating your paper. The next step is to bind your ideas and to assemble them into several topics, which require more careful investigation. When you try, you risk having your analysis compared to your professor’s. 14
mode �數
monomial 單項式
multiple 多倍的,多重的;倍數a multiple of
multiplicand 被乘數
multiplication 乘法
multiplier 乘數
multiply 乘.

2015 語言教育暨研究國際研討會 2015 International Conference on Language Education and

This topic can be integrated into political science, government, history, sociology and American studies term papers. When you sit down to write an academic paper, you’ll first want to consider what you know about your topic. Do you really want that to happen. (一)觀察(observe)所蒐集之語料; (二)從該語料的結構猜測(guess)其語言現象; (三)然後大膽構思(formulate)一些假設性的規律來解釋這個現象; (註六) 由此觀之,文抄公想成為妙手神偷,應效法蜜蜂釀蜜的方法,採攝百家之言,擇善而從,加上一番創造的功夫,持之以恆,才有可能成為學者。如何採攝百家之言呢?簡言之,廣博蒐集研究和參考資料,細微觀察,然後予以歸納、分析、批判,是做任何研究得基本功夫。有了此功夫,撰寫論文時,才能旁徵博引。如果只是隨興所至,東摸西摸,不深入瞭解,沒有基本功夫,因所知有限,必致陷於困窮,將來作研究不易有成就。因為篇幅的限制,以下論述的重點將限於語言學。 (一)資料的蒐集 資料是論文的靈魂,但在浩瀚的研究和參考資料中,究竟該到何處去尋找所需要的「滄海一粟」的資料呢?怎麼找法?找到後又該如何鑑定?以下我們就分這三大類加以討論。 甲、資料的寶庫:圖書館與電子資料庫 資料的蒐集應求其廣博確實,圖書館與電子資料庫,無疑地是資料來源最豐富的地方。至於如何有效利用圖書館與電子資料庫,這方面出版論文與書籍不算少(註七),在此毋庸贅敘。 乙、資料的來源 通常蒐集資料之途徑不外以下列幾種: (一)向各行各業的學者專家請教。 (二)為調查某一地區之語言,口語語料的蒐集,可從提供資料的講本地話的人(informant)或從日常生活的談話裡尋找。書面語的語料可從報章、雜誌、小說、詩歌、戲劇等印刷物上取得,甚至也可來自研究者憑自己的語感造出來的句子。 (三)訪問、通訊與問卷得來的資料。 (四)實驗、測量或統計得來的資料。 (五)閱讀期刊、專門索引、百科全書、學報、博、碩論文、書評、手冊、參考書目、辭典、報紙及報紙論文索引等(註八)。 丙、資料的鑑定 資料之蒐集應務求「廣」、「博」以及「精」。將前人在此專業範圍內的研究成果和有關的研究文獻,應盡可能蒐集齊全,但並非拾人牙慧,那麼對蒐集得來的資料,如何去蕪存菁?如何鑑定是否有可供利用的價值呢?依據Slade, Campbell和Ballou (1994:15-16)的說法,通常可從四原則來過濾: 甲、區別原始資料(primary sources)和第二手資料(secondary sources) 原始資料通常包括原作者的出版作品之原始手稿、日記、信函、訪問談話的原始筆錄、實驗報告等。第二手資料概括有百科全書、參考書籍、專門報導、評論或專家學者對某一原始作品所作之分析、評論、詮釋等。此外,宋楚渝(1983:63-64)提醒我們 在評價這兩種資料時,我們必須用判斷力來分辨其間的特性與可信性。(甲)就原始資料來說,我們必須判斷資料本身的可信程度如何?從材料中歸納出對報告有幫助的結論。(乙)就第二手資料而論,我們必須決定原作者本人是否值得信賴,並且要辨別書中何者為事實,何者是原作者自己引申的見解。 譬如,在語法論文中,若要引述語言學大師杭士基的「管轄約束理論」(GB theory),應採用原始資料。對杭氏理論的補充、評論、詮釋之類的二手資料,市面上汗牛充棟,僅供參考而已。 乙、客觀性(Objectivity of the source) 檢視論文之原作者討論某一問題之觀點是否客觀公正. When you are given a prompt by your professor, be sure to read it carefully. To construct an informed argument, you must first try to sort out what you know about a subject from what you think about a subject. Or you may have read various critical perspectives on the film, all of them in disagreement with one another. N
natural number 自然數
negative number 負數
negligible 可忽略不計的
n-gon n-邊形
nickel 五分
nonadjacent 不相鄰的
nonagon 九邊形
nonzero 非零;非零的
not necessarily distinct不必然不同的
number 數,數位
number line 數軸,規定了原點,正方向和單位長度的直線,
數軸上的點和實數一一對應
numerator 分數的分子
numerical coefficient 數位係數. Do you want to list each opposing argument and rebut them one by one. We have been examining the hottest degrees in today’s colleges and universities. In other words, you will want to write something that helps your reader to better understand your topic, or to see it in a new way. At the very least, you’ll want to find out if the professor wants a report or a paper. New York: Modern Language Association of America. After all, it’s not enough to summarize in a paper what is already known and talked about. The credit crisis makes an excellent term paper topic because it is at the heart of America’s economic crisis. Tw
COPYRIGHT@2012 CYCU Department of Applied Linguistics and Language Studies. Revolutions per min每分鐘轉速
rhombus 菱形
right 直的
root 方根;方程的根
round 四捨五入
row:column 行.

You must write something that your readers will find useful. Is there any part of your response to the text that might cause your reader to discount your paper as biased or un-critical. You also determine whether you are going to analyze your topic through the lens of a particular discipline – history, for example. Consider what your opponents might say against your argument. Very close to the number 5 topic is the 4th term paper topic of the seizure of financial institutions by the federal government, namely the nation’s largest savings and loan and the nation’s largest insurance company. The credit crisis makes an excellent term paper topic because it is at the heart of America’s economic crisis.

Org , we constantly stress how important it is that your term paper topic be related to what is going on in the world today. 論文寫作最重要的是言之成理,要言之成理,唯一祕訣是多讀多看多研究。而研究就是發掘問題到解決問題的一連串過程,有點像挖煤礦一樣,不斷去掘,一直挖到煤為止。因此,做研究,要下苦功,天賦需苦功為伴,無捷徑可循。功夫足了,就像珠寶看多了,自然就會鑑定,什麼書有料沒料,一看就知到。這種發現可疑之處,發掘問題、蒐集資料、比較鑑定、知所取捨是做研究的基本功夫,擁有這些功夫,從事論文寫作時,自然就會旁徵博引、小題大作,遠離操抄襲之路,步上創作之康莊大道。無疑地,時代的巨輪,由於我們前人心血努力的研究創作而得以向前邁進。最後引用高教司司長余玉照所提出「邁向卓越人生五多法」中的一多,作為本文的結語:

    「多研究:每一個行業或每一個學術領域都有無限發展的空間,唯有鍥而不捨地在研究的路上付出心血,使能享有不斷發展的希望。」(註十一)


附註

註一:前三點原因是宋楚瑜(1983:ix)所提出的。

註二:教育部高教司余玉照司長,在一九九六年第四屆通識教師研討會中,發言指出「University」當中十個字母可能代表十個重要理念。原文如下:”University” may stand for “universally nurturing intellect and virtue with enthusiasm and reason for science, idealism, truth and yourself. No matter what class it is, a term paper topic should be relevant to today’s world in order to truly “Wow” your professor. Let’s first consider your relationship to your topic. Some concepts and consequences of the theory of government and binding. First of all, pay attention to what your professor is saying. Undisputedly, an Education Degree is one of the most sought after degrees in our nation. Abstracts have always served the function of “selling” your work. Does this prioritizing reflect some bias or preconception on your part.

In other words, you will want to write something that helps your reader to better understand your topic, or to see it in a new way. Professors want students to write clearly and intelligently on matters that they, the students, care about. In asking these questions, you are straddling two intellectual processes: experiencing your own personal response, and analyzing the text. How do they contribute to Hitchcock’s work as a whole. That is, they will begin by summarizing what other scholars have said about their topic, and then they will declare what they are adding to the conversation. Brainstorming can be performed in groups or you can do it on you own. What in the text is leading you to respond a certain way. Traditionally, leaks to the press come from officials trying to curry favor with journalists, who will treat them favorably in the future.

A topic sentence is like a thesis sentence – except that instead of announcing the argument of the entire paper, it announces the argument of that particular paragraph. In a business context, an “executive summary” is often the only piece of a report read by the people who matter; and it should be similar in content if not tone to a journal paper abstract. “Place” your argument for your reader by naming the text, the author, the issues it raises, and your take on these issues. Often writers will do the latter before they do the former. Many students writing in college have trouble figuring out what constitutes an appropriate topic. Check ↓ (Progressive)

Language Performance

湯廷池(1981:110)也有類似的陳述:

語言學是一門經驗科學(empirical science)。大凡經驗科學都具有三種特性:所研究的必須是可以實地觀察而客觀分析的現象,從分析的結果可以歸納出一般性的規律(generalizations)來,所歸納的一般性規律必能依據經驗事實來驗証其真假或對錯。

註四:關於各學科慣用的寫作規範,Hansen(1989:77)調查美國楊百翰大學(Brigham Young Univ. New York: Modern Language Association of America.

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